The biological component of IPM involves the release and/or conservation of natural predators, such as parasites and pathogens, and other beneficial organisms. A few biofungicides, or formulations of living organisms used to control the activity of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria, are commercially available. Natural enemies (including ladybird beetles, green lacewings, and mantids) may be purchased and released near pest infestations. Areas on the golf course can also be modified to better support natural predators and beneficial organisms.
Best Management Practices
- Identify areas on the golf course that can be modified to attract natural predators, provide habitat for them, and protect them from pesticide applications.
- Install flowering plants that can provide parasitoids with nectar, or sucking insects (aphids, mealybugs, and soft scales) with a honeydew source.
- Avoid applying pesticides to roughs, driving ranges, or other low-use areas to provide a refuge for beneficial organisms.
Next: Conventional Pesticides